The Many Types of Oil Painting Surfaces

Oil paintings are often created on a variety of surfaces known as supports. Materials such as canvas, panels, paper, wood, metal, and various others can be used.
Note: The surface is called a support because it “supports” the medium used to paint the image.

Below are some interesting bullet points about the more common types of oil painting surfaces.

Types of Oil Painting SurfacesStretched Canvas is:

  • the most common support for oils used by modern-day artists.
  • a tightly woven flexible material made from cotton, linen, or other synthetic material stretched across a wooden or metal stretcher bar frame.
  • can be purchased already primed and stretched onto stretcher bars, or it can be purchased in bulk rolls that the artist cuts up into smaller pieces and stretches onto the frame.
  • comes in three varieties of textures—

Fine: extra smooth surface for finely detailed paintings, such as portraiture.
Medium: bold texture surface for expressive paintings with broad brushstrokes, like the Impressionists.
Rough: abrasive “toothy” surface to enhance adhesion for collage.
Note: The more refined the canvas texture is, the less the surface of the canvas will show through in your finished painting.

  • is available in two styles—

Traditional-style Stretched Canvas: the pre-primed canvas is stretched across and attached (side-stapled) to the sides of wooden stretcher bars using staples. Artists create their paintings on top of the canvas surface. The sides of the canvas are left raw or unpainted. Paintings composed on traditional-style canvas will require a frame before being displayed.

Gallery Wrap Stretched Canvas: the pre-primed canvas fabric is stretched across and wrapped around the wood stretcher bars. It is attached to the back of the stretcher bars using staples (back-stapled) or spline. Gallery wrap stretched canvas allows artists to paint on the sides or edges of the canvas and to hang it without a frame.

Neither gallery wrap nor traditional stretched canvas is superior. Some artists and collectors prefer the look of framed art, while others prefer the more contemporary look of unframed art.

Types of Oil Painting SurfacesCanvas Panel Board is:

  • a rigid surface covered with primed canvas glued onto heavy-duty, lightweight cardboard.
  • approximately 1/8″ thick and takes up less room than stretched canvases.
  • more durable, resistant to warping, and less fragile than stretched canvas.
  • easier to frame than stretched canvases.
  • preferred by many artists for their smaller paintings.
  • an ideal option for painting on location because they are lightweight, and also sunlight will not shine through the back.

canvas paperCanvas Paper is:

  • a flexible surface primarily used for small sketches, color notes, and other purposes.
  • not a good surface to paint on because it is too fragile and will not last through the years.
    Note: Works painted on canvas paper must undergo extreme restorative and conservative treatments, usually within a few decades.
  • available in various paper qualities—

100% cotton: top of the quality scale, the paper is made entirely of cotton.
Rag paper: some rag content is included in the paper, often mixed with wood cellulose.
Wood-free or high alpha cellulose or wood sulfite: the highest grade of wood pulp paper.

fine art wood panel boardWood Panel Canvas is:

  • a rigid surface for artists made from poplar, oak, linden, pine, cedar, or various other hardwoods, like mahogany or walnut
    Note: Other types of woods these panels are made from include plywood, fiberboard, Masonite, and particleboard.
  • the best for painting when they are well seasoned, air-dried quarter-sawn hardwoods to avoid warping, shrinking, as this causes them to hold paint better
    Note: Wood panels need to be well-aged to prevent shrinking and warping from exposure to the water content present in some paints.

metal fine art panel boardsMetal Panel Canvas is:

  • a rigid surface that requires an oil primer to prepare it to support artist paints.
    Note: This type of surface does not fair well with liquid (water base) primers.
  • comes in various types of fine art metals — aluminum, brass, and copper.

Hopefully, this concise article will provide a little bit of information regarding the many types of oil painting surfaces available to the artist.

Additional Reading

Types of Canvas Available for Painting

About Artist Stretcher Bar Frames

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UPDATED: 31 March 2022

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What Every Oil Painter Needs to Know About Artist Oils, Part 2

In part 1 of “What Every Oil Painter Needs to Know About Artist Oils,” we looked at the ingredients that go into artist oils and the various lightfastness ratings. In this continuing article, we’ll take a closer look at the different grades of oil paint and what they mean.

Artist Oils: Artist-Grade vs. Student-Grade

artist oilsArtist oils come in two grades: artist-grade and student-grade. The main difference between the two types of oil paint is the potency or concentration of the pigment. This means that artist-grade oil paint will stretch further than a student-grade will because it contains more pigment.

Artist-Grade Oils

Artist-grade paints (sometimes called professional paints) are made from the purest ingredients and contain a higher ratio of pigment to oil base. That percentage can be as high as 75% pigment to 25% oil base for some colors. This usually makes them more expensive to purchase than student paints. However, it also means artist-grade paints will be more economical in the long run because they will stretch further. Also, artist paints have better mixability and truer color because there are no fillers like in student-grade.

Student-Grade Oils

Student-grade colors are often called “hues” on the label. The word “hue” means imitation or fake. This means that the pigment is artificial and not a true pigment. For example, Cadmium Red Hue is an imitation version of the actual pigment known as Cadmium Red. Student-grade paints were created to reduce the cost or toxicity of true pigments.

They have different mixability and opacity characteristics than true pigments, and they tend to get muddy and dull when mixed. Student-grade of paint is cheaper because of the ingredients – they contain less pigment and more filler. Filler costs much less than the purer, concentrated ingredients in artist-grade paints. However, just because the paint is priced cheaper does not mean it is more economical. When mixing color with student-grade paint, you will need much more paint to get the final color you are trying to mix. This is because the strength of the pigment is weaker (less potent) in student-grade and will take more to mix the color you desire. In addition, student-grade oil paints come in fewer colors than artist-grade oil paints.

Whenever possible, it’s best to purchase artist-quality paint rather than student because you get more pigment in a tube, and the results from color mixing are more intense and brighter. In addition, if you mix student-grade with artist-grade, you risk reducing the quality of the better grade paint rather than improving the quality of the lesser grade. If you need to save money, consider painting on smaller canvases or using the lesser grade paints as the under-painting saving the finer quality paints for the upper layers.

Knowing which oil paint is best suited for your particular needs will save you time and money in the long run. Do a little research on your own, compare labels and prices. Look at some consumer reports and reviews written by other artists. You should be able to find the type that suits you best.

I hope this article takes some of the mystery out of which oil paints to use for your paintings. Being more familiar with the materials you work with will make you a better artist.

Additional Reading

For more information on the subject of artist-grade vs. student-grade oil paint, see the article titled “Artist Grade or Student Grade Oil Paint, Making a Choice.”

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UPDATED: 15 March 2021

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What Every Oil Painter Needs to Know About Artist Oils, Part 1

about artist oilsThere is such a wide selection of oil paint brands available it’s hard to know where to begin. Hopefully, when you finish reading this two-part article, you will have a little better idea of what artist oils are and which one to use.

The Ingredients in Artist Oils

Oil paints are made up of pigment that has been ground into an oil base, called the vehicle or binder. The most commonly used vehicle is cold-pressed linseed oil. However, artist oils may be made with walnut oil, poppy seed oil, safflower oil, or other less popular oils.

Linseed oil comes from the flaxseed and gives oil paints a longer drying time. This allows the paint to be worked with for extended periods, sometimes even up to several months. The advantage of a longer drying time means the artist can develop a painting by making changes and corrections at the artist’s leisure. A disadvantage of longer drying times is the painting might take months or years to completely dry, depending on how thickly the paint was applied to canvas. This might be an issue if you have a customer anxiously waiting for the painting to dry so he/she can take possession of it.

oil paint pigment

The pigment is where paint gets its color. A paint color gets its name from the pigment that is used. We first got our pigments from the earth in the form of rocks or powder, but now it is also manufactured from synthetic materials. Some of the oldest pigments known to man are made from colored earth, like Yellow Ochre, Sienna, and Umber. Other pigments are derived from mineral salts such as White Oxide.

Pigment can be divided into two categories, these are:

    • Natural pigments – A pigment derived from naturally occurring compounds, either inorganic, such as rocks, minerals, and metals; or organic ones, such as plants and animals. Examples include Mars Brown, which comes from iron oxide, or Ivory Black that comes from charred animal bones. Natural pigments have been around for centuries and were used by the Old Masters, who would make their paints before starting a painting session. A lot of the natural pigments in use today are manufactured from inorganic substances.
    • Synthetic pigments – An artificial pigment made by chemists from carbon-based molecules derived from petroleum substances, acids, and other chemical compounds. Most of the oil paints we use today are made from synthetic pigments, such as quinacridone, phthalocyanine, and dioxazine. Fortunately, these paints have maintained their natural pigment names for historical and cultural reasons.

Lightfastness of Artist Oils

There is very little difference between modern-day natural and synthetic pigments regarding their potency of color and ability to mix well with other oil paints. However, an important factor to consider in any paint is its lightfastness. Lightfastness is a paint’s ability to resist fading when exposed to ultraviolet light. This is important because it determines the length of time a pigment will retain its original color. In other words, it determines the life expectancy of the work of art. A pigment must have lightfastness, and it must not break down chemically or physically if the work is going to last through the ages like the Old Masters.

To determine the lightfastness of your oil paints, look for the official American Society for Testing and Materials Standard (ASTM) rating information on the labels of each tube of paint. The ASTM is an independent organization that was established to create a worldwide standard for pigment permanence. The following pigment ratings were established in 1984.

Lightfastness ratings:

    • ASTM I – Excellent
    • ASTM II – Very Good
    • ASTM III – Not Sufficient enough to be used in artists’ paints

You would want your oil paints to have the lightfastness of an I or II.

To Be Continued…

This article is continued in “What Every Oil Painter Needs to Know About Artist Oils, Part 2,” where we’ll take a closer look at the different grades of oil paint and what they mean.

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Types of Bristles for Oil Painting Brushes

If you’re an oil painting artist, it is important to know the different types of bristles for oil painting brushes. Having knowledge of bristle types will help you choose the right brush. The term “bristle” refers to the hairs that make up the brush head of a paintbrush. The brush head is the part of an artist’s brush that holds and delivers paint to the canvas’s surface.

Bristles for oil painting brushes are made from two types of hair, natural hair, and synthetic hair.

Natural Hair

Bristle and sable are the two main types of hair used in natural brushes. Artists prefer natural bristles for oil paints because they are softer than synthetic bristles.

Types of Bristles for Oil Painting Brushes
Bristle brush

Bristle brushes are stiff and springy brushes made of the hairs from the back of a pig. They have natural “split-ends,” which make them ideal for oil painting because they can withstand heavy oil paint, textured canvas, and harsh solvents like turpentine. The stiff bristles will leave a strong mark on the canvas. In addition, Bristle brushes are easy to clean.

Bristle brushes are best in sizes of a half-inch wide or larger. They are best when used in large areas of a canvas, to begin a painting, or for very large paintings. Entire paintings may be painted using only bristle brushes. However, you would want to switch to sable brushes if you wish to have finer detail in smaller areas.

sable hair brush
Sable brush

Sable brushes do not come from sables. Instead, they are made from any member of the weasel family with “red” hair.

Sable brushes are softer and more delicate than a bristle or synthetic brushes. They are also more expensive and require more care.

Sables are great for blending, glazing, and making soft, less-defined marks. In addition, they are great detail brushes. The best sizes for this brush are a one-half inch in width or smaller. Artists painting with oils often prefer their long handles, which allows them to work at a greater distance from their painting.

Some less common natural hairs used for painting brushes are badger, camel, goat, mongoose, ox, pony, and squirrel.

Synthetic Hair

synthetic hair brush
Synthetic brush

Synthetic brushes are manufactured from either nylon or “Taklon,” a polyester filament. This paintbrush offers more versatility than natural because it may be used with acrylic and oil paints. These brushes are a good budget alternative to natural bristle brushes, but make sure they’re made for oil paints.

Some advantages of synthetic brushes are:

    • They are more resistant to damage from turpentine, insects, or paints.
    • Cleanup is easier since they don’t tend to trap paint in the individual hairs.
    • The hairs last longer because they are less prone to break and are more durable on many different canvas surfaces.

One disadvantage is the less expensive synthetic brushes tend to lose their shape more quickly than natural hair brushes.

Additional Reading

All You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Artist Brushes and Then Some — Part 1

Anatomy of The Artist Paint Brush

Types of Artist Brushes for Oil Painting

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Taking The Mystery Out of Mahl Sticks

Mahl sticks can be a mystery. Let’s take a closer look at them. The word mahl stick comes to us from the Dutch word “maalstok,” which means “painter’s stick.” It’s a handy little tool used by artists that has been around for centuries. Many of the Old Masters regularly used them as they were putting paint to canvas on many of their masterpieces. We often see paintings from the 16th- through 19th-centuries depicting artists in their studios, at their easels, etc., and the mahl stick is usually there, included as part of the painter’s equipment.

Mahl SticksArtists use this painter’s stick to steady their hands when attempting to paint minute details on their canvas art. Most oil painting artists paint with their canvases resting upright on an easel, and sometimes it’s hard to get your hand into just the right position without resting it on your canvas. This is a problem if the surface is delicate or the paint is wet. You can’t just plop your hand in the middle of your work. To do so would mean smudging or smearing your artwork. That’s where mahl sticks come in handy.

painters mahl stickA mahl stick is simply a long, round stick approximately three feet in length with a ball or knob on one end. Usually, the knob end has a ball or wad of cotton on it that is surrounded by soft leather or chamois. The chamois will keep it from slipping on the surface and can easily be removed for cleaning or replaced when it gets soiled.

You use the painter’s stick by resting the ball-end on the edge of the canvas, easel, or dry spot of the painting. Then hold the other end up with your non-painting hand and steady your hand holding the brush on the stick while you paint. If you’re right-handed, you will hold the mahl stick with your left hand, and if you are left-handed, you will hold it with your right. It should be light enough so your hand that holds the stick will not get tired.

Mahl sticks can be purchased online or from local art supply stores, or you can make one yourself. They can be made from any round piece of wood you have on hand, such as an old broom handle, half-inch dowel, or piece of bamboo. Whichever it is, it should be lightweight yet strong enough to resist bending under the weight of your hand.

One end of the mahl stick should be easy to grip. This can be achieved by wrapping it with some sports tape like the handle of a hockey stick or tennis racket. The other end of the painter’s stick needs to be bulky by adding a ball-shaped piece of wood or a rubber tip like what is used on the tip of walking canes. You would then wrap it with a bit of cloth to prevent it from slipping or scratching the canvas. It can be tied on by using a piece of string.

I hope this article takes a little bit of the mystery out of mahl sticks and provides a valuable painting tip.

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What to Know About an Artist’s Oil Painting Palette, Part 1

What is there to know about an artist’s oil painting palette? You’d be surprised.

Artist's Painting PalettePerhaps one of the most iconic symbols of the fine artist is the artist’s painting palette. They are often taken for granted; however, the palette is one of the most important tools an artist uses. There is much to consider about the palette, and this article covers some interesting points.

Palette (noun):
(1) A thin board or slab (traditionally made of wood) on which an artist lays out and mixes colors.
(2) The range of colors used by an artist for a particular picture.

“Palette” is one of those words in the English language that has more than one meaning. It can refer to the actual tool an artist uses to mix colors on or refer to a selection of colors used to make up a color scheme. For this article, when an artist’s oil painting palette is mentioned, I refer to the surface an artist uses to mix paint on.

There are many types of palettes available on the market for oil painting artists. They are made of various materials, from wood to paper to plastic, and they come in all kinds of shapes and sizes. It’s a matter of personal preference which type, shape, and size you choose to use.

Types of Artist’s Painting Palettes

An oil painting palette is a stiff, level surface that an artist uses to arrange and mix paints on. Any flat surface may be used for one; however, those made from hard, inert, and non-porous material make the best palettes. These would include wood, plastic, or wax paper.

Palettes can also vary in size and shape. The most commonly known type of painter’s palette is made of a thin piece of rectangular or classic kidney-shaped wood specifically designed to be held in the hand and rest on the arm between the elbow and thumb.

wooden Painting PaletteWooden Painting Palette

This is the most traditional artist’s painting palette and was used by the Old Masters. Today’s manufactured wooden palettes are sealed with a varnish or lacquer. You can make your own if you desire to do so; however, a wooden palette must be properly seasoned before using it with oils. This can be done using plain shellac or linseed oil and rubbing it into the wood using a rag. If it is not seasoned, you will end up with a palette that will absorb all the oil from your mounds of paint, and soon you will find yourself working with paint that seems much drier than when you first squeezed it from its tube.

plastic Painting PalettePlastic Painting Palette

Another popular material for an artist’s painting palette is plastic. Plastic palettes are durable enough to withstand solvents and work well with oil paint. They can be scraped clean and are more adaptable to soap and water than a wooden palette. Usually, these are made of a non-staining, white plastic.

disposable Painting PaletteDisposable  Painting Palette

These are pads of waxy paper that come with or without a thumb-hole. The top sheet is torn off and used for a painting session. When the session is over, the sheet is disposed of. This makes for a quick and easy cleanup. Some artists find this type of palette convenient, particularly for the classroom or “Plein air” painting.

Palette Shape and Size

Artist’s oil painting palettes come in a rectangular or classic kidney shape. The kidney-shaped variety has a thumb-hole at one end and is made to rest in hand and against the forearm easily. Paint colors are arranged around the edge of the kidney-shaped palette and are easy to access. On the other hand, rectangular palettes appeal to other artists because they allow the paint to be arranged neatly in rows. And rectangular-shaped palettes fit nicely inside art boxes and field easels when taken out on location.

Some palettes are large, while others are smaller. Many of the Old Masters preferred to use a small palette because they worked their paintings in stages, and fewer colors were needed for each painting session. A smaller palette meant they had more control over their paint. Some of the larger palettes used by artists today are adapted to the modern method of having every color in your paint box on your palette at one time. That can be a lot of colors! If you have that many colors to squeeze out of their tubes, you need a larger palette to hold them all and give you ample room for mixing.

Whether you use a rectangular or kidney-shaped palette, a large or small one, it is a matter of personal choice as to which you choose to use.

To Be Continued…

This article is continued in Artist’s Oil Painting Palette, Part 2. In part 2, you will learn how to set up your palette, plus other helpful information.

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What to Know About an Artist’s Oil Painting Palette, Part 2

What is there to know about an artist’s oil painting palette? You’d be surprised.

In the article, Artist’s Oil Painting Palette, Part 1, we learned about the different types of artists’ palettes there are for oil painting. The word palette has two different meanings. The topic of this article deals with the kind of palette an artist uses to mix color.

Palette Color and Tone

kidney shaped artist paletteThe most important thing about the oil painting palette is its color. You will find that you will have a much easier time getting your colors right if you mix them on a palette that is the same color as your canvas.

Artists who want to see the true color of their paint will mix their paint on a palette that is the same color as their canvas. If you mix your paint on a brown wooden palette and then apply that same paint to a white canvas, the color will look different from what you mixed on your palette. For example, if you mix pink on your brown wooden palette, you see the pink color against the brown color of your palette. Then when you apply the pink paint to your white canvas, the color will look different because you are now seeing that same pink color against a stark white surface. Your pink will look dark on the white canvas, but it will look much lighter on the palette. The Old Masters often painted on brown or gray canvas, and their palettes were that same tone. This meant the paint they mixed on their palette was the same color when they applied it to their canvases. There were no surprises or remixing of color to get it right. It was right the first time.

Positioning Your Painting Palette

oil painting PaletteThe artist’s oil painting palette can be used in two primary positions, either on the tabletop or hand-held. Some artists prefer to hold their palettes while they paint. This makes it possible to continue painting from different angles. Other artists would prefer to set their palette on a table and mix paints that way. Tabletop palettes are usually larger, and this feature allows the artist more room for mixing colors. Whichever position you choose for your palette is a matter of preference.

Organizing Your Painting Palette

Organizing your oil painting palette is a helpful skill to use. It may seem insignificant, but a well-organized palette will make your painting sessions easier and more enjoyable. How you organize paint on your palette is entirely up to you. There is no right or wrong way. Some artists choose to arrange their palette from light to dark, while others place their colors from cool to warm. Another way is to group colors according to families, such as grouping all your yellow colors together, oranges, reds, violets, blues, greens, earth colors, etc. Still, other painters lay out their paint colors in a haphazard manner without apparent rhyme or reason. Even though there are no specific rules for arranging colors on your palette, the arrangement should make sense so that time is not wasted searching for your colors.

The following are some suggestions for organizing your palette.

    • Place your colors along the outer edge of your palette, leaving the center area open for mixing your paints.
    • If you are a beginner, you might want to start with a small section of colors on your palette. As you become a more experienced painter, you can add more colors.
    • Try to lay out your colors in the same order each time you paint. You will soon get to know where they are without having to look at your palette.

I hope this article has taken some of the mystery out of oil painting palettes. The type of palette you choose to use and how you lay out your paints are beneficial and the enjoyment you’ll receive from the painting experience. So take your time when it comes to selecting the palette you want. And don’t let the price decide whether you buy one over another. Get yourself a good palette because you will be using it for all your painting sessions.

Happy painting!

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UPDATED: 10 June 2021

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There Are Palette Knives, and Then There Are Painting Knives

There are palette knives, and then there are painting knives used by oil painters. So what’s the difference between the two? Each type of knife has a specific purpose in oil painting. This article will explain the difference and what those functions are.

Palette Knives

Palette Knives and Painting Knives
Palette Knife

A palette knife is a blunt tool used by an artist. It has a long, straight blade and is primarily used for mixing paints and scraping a palette clean when a painting session is over. It is not the type of palette knife used to apply paint to canvas because of its straight blade and handle. The knife used for actual painting on canvas is called a painting knife and will be discussed in a minute. Most palette knives are metal blades with a wooden handle; however, some are made from plastic.

A palette knife is something that every artist needs, even if they never intend to do a painting using one. You will at the very least need one for mixing paint colors on your palette.

A palette knife is not be confused with a painting knife, although many artists use the term “palette knife” when referring to both types of knives, which is perfectly acceptable.

Painting Knives

Palette Knives and Painting Knives
Painting Knife

The painting knife serves a different function than a palette knife and comes in various styles and sizes. It is also shaped differently than a palette knife. The most commonly used painting knife has a diamond-shaped head and a crooked handle and is primarily used to apply pigment to canvas. The bend in the handle is so you can hold the knife head flat against your canvas without touching the wet surface with your fingers or knuckles.

A painting knife may be used with any paint — acrylic, watercolor, and oils. However, oil paint lends itself the best to this style of painting because of its thicker consistency. Some artists do entire paintings using a knife instead of a brush. Painting with a knife is a bit like putting butter on bread and is also a great way of creating texture on your canvas. The paint on these canvases is applied so thickly that the strokes, scrapes, and streaks made by the painting knife are clearly visible. This type of painting usually requires advanced skills. To see some examples of paintings done entirely with a painting knife, go to Google images and type in the keyword “palette knife painting.” You will see some very nice examples of painting knife paintings.

When it comes to cleaning, you will find cleanup is much easier than a brush. Simply wipe the knife clean using a paper towel or cloth.

Lastly, a painting knife can also be used for mixing colors and for scraping your palette. There really is no need to have both a palette knife and a painting knife.

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UPDATED: 26 September 2020

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Types of Artist Brushes for Oil Painting

Artist brushes for oil painting come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Each type of brush is for a specific purpose. Here are some of the more common types: bright, fan, filbert, flat, and round.


bright artists brushes
Bright Art Brush

A Bright is a brush with a flat ferrule with short-length hairs set in a long handle. The hairs curve inward at the tip and measure almost the same for the width and length of the brush head. This brush works well for applying heavy color in short controlled strokes; however, a Bright will remove as much paint as they apply when worked too hard. Use this brush when you want the brush strokes to show. These brush types are better for working up close rather than holding the brush at a distance from the canvas.


fan artist brushes
Fan Art Brush

A Fan is a flat brush with a thin layer of hairs spread out in the shape of a fan. It also features a flat ferrule. This brush is excellent for smoothing, blending, and feathering. The synthetic hairs are perfect for painting highlights and flowing strands of hair, grasses, leaves, and thin branches on trees, creating textural effects and blending the soft edges of clouds. A word of caution though, be careful not to make identical or repetitive marks that look unnatural.


filbert oil painting brushes
Filbert Art Brush

A Filbert is a flat oval-shaped brush with medium to long chiseled rounded edge hairs. It has a thick flat ferrule with a long handle. This brush is ideal for blending soft rounded edges like flower petals. Filbert brushes look like a blend of Rounds and Flats. The curved tip makes it easier to control blending and softening edges. When used on its side, a filbert gives a thin line; when used flat, it produces a broad brushstroke, and by varying the pressure as you apply the brush to canvas or flicking it across, you can get a tapering mark.


flat oil painting artist brushes
Flat Art Brush

The Flat brush has medium to long square-ended hairs within a flat ferrule. The strands are arranged in a rectangular shape that are longer than wide. Looking at it from the side, it is narrow. This brush is ideal for bold, sweeping strokes, washes, filling wide spaces, impasto. It can also be used for fine lines, straight edges, and stripes. Used flat produces broad brushstrokes, turned on the narrow edge produces thin strokes. Flat brushes are primarily used for covering large areas, flat strokes as well as blending.


round oil painting artist brushes
Round Art Brush

The Round brush is a traditional brush shape with a round or pointed tip in a round ferrule. It is what most individuals picture when they think of an art brush. They make excellent brushes for sketching, outlining, detailed work, controlled washes, and filling in small areas. Use them to create thin to thick lines – thin at the tip, becoming wider the more it’s pressed down. The round brush is versatile in many ways. They have large bellies with long hairs that taper at the ends. They can hold a lot of paint for thick, large, bold strokes. Thin, delicate marks are also possible with this brush if the pant loaded to the belly is thin. Rounds are most often used for small details and line work.

Additional Reading

Anatomy of the Artist Paint Brush

All You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Artist Brushes and Then Some — Part 1

All You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Artist Brushes and Then Some — Part 2

All You’ve Ever Wanted to Know About Artist Brushes and Then Some — Part 3

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What to Know About Gesso

Gesso is one of those must-have art supplies that every artist needs to have on hand, and this is what you should know about it.

Gesso is pronounced: ges·so  /ˈjesō/. Singular: gesso; plural: gessoes. The word “gesso” is a noun; however, many artists also use it as a verb. For example: “I need to gesso my canvas before I start painting.”

What is it?

Gesso is a white paint mixture consisting of a binder mixed with chalk, gypsum, pigment, or any combination. It is used as a primer by painters to coat their canvas, preparing it to receive acrylic or oil-based paints. Gesso makes the surface of the canvas slightly textured so the paint will better adhere to it. Without this layer of primer, the paint would soak into the weave of the canvas.

Gesso also comes in various colors, or you can tint it in a color of your choosing by simply mixing a little bit of acrylic paint with it. Traditionally gesso primer has always been white and is the most popular. However, these days you can find it readymade in black, clear, and colored varieties.

Gesso comes in two grades; student and artist grade. The difference between student and artist grade acrylic gesso is in the amount of white pigment in it. More pigment means it will be more opaque and cover better in one or fewer coats. The amount of filler in the primer is another difference. Filler is essential for tooth and absorbency.

Gesso primer comes in squeeze bottles, large tubs, or jars. Squeeze bottles can squeeze out primer directly onto the canvas and then be smoothed out using a brush. Primer that comes in a tub or jar allows you to stick a priming brush right into the container and be applied to canvas.

How Does It Work?

about gessoIt works like this. Gesso is first painted onto the canvas to seal and prime it before paint is applied. Once dry, it serves as a protective layer to protect the canvas from certain elements in paint that could otherwise damage it. Gesso dries to a matt, gritty surface that provides adhesion for paint. It can be sanded to obtain a smoother finish. Gesso can be applied to just about any surface and may be painted with acrylic or oil paint.

When priming a canvas with Gesso, it should be applied in layers, allowed to dry, and then lightly sanded between coats. Each layer will take about an hour to dry. When applying the various layers, be sure to brush strokes horizontally for the first coat and then vertically for the next, or vise versa. The primer may be thinned with water to reduce the number of brush strokes.

Additional Reading

The Many Types of Oil Painting Surfaces

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UPDATED: 15 March 2021

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