The first basic principle of good design is balance. It is a significant design element because without it a composition will look off. In two dimensional art, balance is all about the visual weightiness of a composition and not the physical weight.
Balance in art can be defined as a sense of equilibrium and is achieved when the visual weight of objects are distributed equally within a composition. When no single part of the design can overpower or appear heavier than another part in the same design, a sense of visual balance is created.
Some elements within a painting that effect the degree of visual balance are:
- Lights and darks — light colors will appear lighter in weight than dark colors
- Brightness — brilliant colors appear to weigh more than neutral colors
- Warmth and coolness — warm colors, such as yellow tend to enlarge or expand an area in size, while cool colors like blue tend to contract or shrink an area
- Transparency — Transparent areas seem to visually weigh less than opaque areas
Horizontal, Vertical and Radial Balance
Balancing the components within a painting is best illustrated by visualizing weighing scales or a playground see-saw. As you can see, balance is not achieved through an actual physical weighing process, but through visual judgment on the part of the observer. In this respect, to balance a 2D composition requires a skillful distribution of its components in such a way that the viewer is satisfied the piece is not about to topple over.
When components are balanced left and right of a central axis they are balanced horizontally. When they are balanced above and below they are said to be balanced vertically. And when components are distributed around the center point, or spring out from a central line, this is referred to as radial balance.
Types of Balance
There are two types of balance — symmetrical or asymmetrical. Symmetrical balance is also referred to as symmetry or formal balance. And asymmetrical balance is also called asymmetry or informal balance. Of these two types, symmetrical balance is the most stable visually.
Symmetrical balance is when the weight is equally distributed on both sides of the central axis. Symmetry is the simplest and most obvious type of balance. It creates a secure, safe feeling and a sense of solidity. Symmetrical balance can be achieved in two ways. One way is by “pure symmetry,” and the other way is by “approximate symmetry.”
In pure symmetry identical parts are equally distributed on either side of the central axis in mirror-like repetition. A good example of pure symmetry is the human face. It is the same on both the right side and the left side of the nose. Pure symmetry has its place in certain art works, however, because of its identical repetition, pure symmetry for a composition can easily become too monotonous and uninteresting to look at.
Approximate symmetry on the other hand has greater appeal and interest for the viewer. The two sides of a composition are varied and are more interesting to view. Even though they are varied somewhat, they are still similar enough to make their repetitious relationship symmetrically balanced.
Asymmetrical balance is when both sides of the central axis are not identical, yet appear to have balance. The way to use asymmetry is by balancing two or more unequal components on either side of the fulcrum by varying their size, value or distance from the center. If the artist can skillfully feel, judge or estimate the various elements and visual weight, this should allow him/her to balance them as a whole, and as a result, achieve a more interesting composition.
The artist will quickly discover the use of asymmetry allows for more freedom of creativity because there are unlimited arrangements that may be devised by using asymmetrical balance.
Some Examples of the Effective Use of Balance
Do you see the vertical balance suggested in the painting on the left? Look at where the foreground ends and you will quickly see how balance is implied by the visual weightiness of the building in the background.
The painting on the right is a little more obvious in it’s vertical balance. Notice how the three objects in the top part of the painting balance the apparent heaviness of the one object (the plate of pancakes) in the lower part of the painting.
- Why is balance so important in a good composition?
- In what way is asymmetry beneficial to the artist?